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Located in southeast Europe, this former republic, established in 1918, split in 1993 into three separate countries: Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Croatia. Jews settled there in early Roman times, and after the Spanish expulsion in 1942, many more came to Belgrade and Sarajevo, preserving Sephardic traditions. Although for many years they were ill-treated, the new Serbia carried out the stipulations of the Berlin Treaty of 1878 regarding religious liberty. After World War II, only 10,500 of the country’s 72,900 Jews remained. Before the outbreak of the recent fighting following the disbanding of Yugoslavia, 4,500 Jews lived there. Since then, hundreds of Jewish children have been brought to Israel, many followed by their parents and grandparents.

Today, only 1500 Jews live in Serbia-Montenegro, 100 in Macedonia, 1700 in Croatia, and 500 in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

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