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Literally, translation. Usually applied to the Aramaic translation of the Bible, of which the best known is Targum Onkelos. An Aramaic translation was necessary to make the Bible understandable to the large number of Jews who spoke Aramaic for many generations during and following the period of the Second Temple. Targum Onkelos is an excellent, almost literal translation. To this day, many editions of the Bible carry the Targum Onkelos, which in many instances enables us to interpret more correctly the original Hebrew text. (See also Onkelos.)

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