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Literally, culture. After the first Russian revolution in 1917, Hebrew culture flourished among Russian Jews. An organization called Tarbut was founded and established cultural institutions, teacher’s seminaries, and schools. Tarbut published Hebrew newspapers for adults and children and contributed to the revival of Hebrew as a spoken language. However, the Tarbut movement was short-lived. As soon as the Soviet regime was established, it banned all of the widespread Tarbut activities. Tarbut organizations then sprang up in other Eastern European countries, especially in Poland and Lithuania. They made an important contribution to modern Hebrew education. On the eve of World War II, 70,000 pupils were enrolled in Tarbut schools. These were destroyed by the Nazis, together with the vast majority of Eastern European Jewry.

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