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Literally, sanctification of God’s name. This term was applied to the act of martyrdom in Jewish history, especially during the Middle Ages at the time of the Inquisition and during the Cossack massacres led by Bogdan Chmielnicki in Ukraine in 1648. Kiddush Ha-Shem also defines an act that brings honor to the Jewish people. The opposite of Kiddush Ha-Shem is Hillul Ha-Shem, desecration of God’s Name.

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