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Founded in 1891 by Baron Maurice de Hirsch, a wealthy French philanthropist, who felt that antisemitism could be lessened if Jews were dispersed geographically and occupationally, especially to farm areas. This organization, known as ICA, aided immigration and agricultural projects for Jews in many places, including southern Russia, Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Poland, and the U.S. Since 1932, ICA funds, originally more than $10 million, have also been used to aid refugees and to supplement the work of other groups that help immigrants.

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