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Literally, the young guard. Left-wing Zionist youth organization, first started in Poland in 1913. It became a major founder of kibbutzim in Israel and became prominent in Europe before the war. For a time it came under the influence of Marxism, which it eventually disavowed. It advocated close cooperation between Jews and Arabs. It was a major force in the founding of Israel, the Palmach, and the Haganah.

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