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Or Golah; from Hebrew, meaning exile. The lands where Jews lived outside of the Land of Israel were called Galut. In early times, Galut also referred to the people-in-exile or captivity. Jewish sages called Israel’s stay in Egypt Galut Mitzrayim, or Egyptian captivity. The second Galut, of Babylonia, lasted 70 years, from 586 to 516 B.C.E., the year of the rebuilding of the Second Temple. The third Exile, from the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 B.C. to the present day, is called Galut Edom or Galut Ishmael. The former refers to the Jews under Christian rule, the latter to those under Moslem dominion. A distinction is usually made between Galut, which is forced exile, and Diaspora, which is voluntary. (See also Ingathering of The Exiles.)

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