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Jewish Socialist Party, founded in Russia in 1897. A militant group, the Bund worked for the overthrow of the Russian Tsarist government, organizing demonstrations and strikes. Some Bundists escaped to the U.S. and became active in the Jewish social movement in America. After the Russian Revolution in 1917, a part of the Bund joined the Jewish section of the Communist party. It established schools, conducted cultural work in the Yiddish language, and organized youth groups and workers’ cooperatives. Initially, the Bund bitterly opposed Zionism and considered it a “bourgeois utopia.” It was equally antagonistic to Hebrew as the Jewish national tongue. Remnants of the Bund are still active in America, Israel, and some European countries.

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