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From German, meaning Jewish Council. During World War II, the Nazi occupiers of Europe set up a Judenrat in every Jewish community, whether as large as the half million Jews of Warsaw or as small as a village of a handful of families. The members of the Judenrat were put in the painful position of serving their own people’s executioners, and while many of them sought to alleviate their people’s situation, there was little they could do.

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