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Famous family from Spain that lived mostly in Southern France during the 12th and 13th centuries. They are best known as translators of Arabic works into Hebrew. In doing so, they enriched the Hebrew language by creating new words and expressions for philosophic and scientific terms previously unknown in Hebrew. They also made available the works of outstanding Jewish philosophers and scholars to a wider public that could not read Arabic. Some noteworthy family members are:

Judah Ben Saul (1120-1190), who practiced medicine at Lunel in Southern France. Among the works he translated are Emunot Vedeot (Beliefs and Opinions) by Saadiah Gaon; Hovot haLevavot (Duties of the Heart) by Bahya Ibn Pakuda, and the Kuzari by Judah Ha-Levi.

Judah ben Samuel (1150-1230), who was the most important of all translators. He rendered into Hebrew MaimonidesMoreh Nebuchim (Guide to the Perplexed) and other works. Judah corresponded with this great scholar and philosopher, discussing various problems that arose with the translations.

Moses ben Samuel (1240-1283), who was a practicing physician in Provence. He translated Maimonides’ commentary on the Mishnah (Peirush Hamishnayot), his Sefer Hamitzvot, and Milot Hahigayon (Terms of Logic), as well as scientific and philosophic works from the Arabic.

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