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Jewish settlement in Greece dating back to the 2nd century B.C.E. Documents of the 12th and 13th centuries indicate Jews were noted for their silk and dyeing industries. Greek Jewry flourished in the 14th and 15th centuries, producing many renowned rabbis and Talmudic scholars. Salonika, which became part of Greece in 1912, was a center of Sephardic Jewry. In the late 19th century, 80,000 of its 120,000 Ladino-speaking inhabitants were Jewish. The massacres and deportations during the Nazi occupation of Greece in World War II virtually annihilated the Jewish community, which dwindled from 75,000 in 1939 to about 5,000 in 2007.

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