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The Jewish community of Tunisia dates back to the destruction of the Second Temple. Since that time the settlement has felt the yoke of both Muslim and Christian domination in a history marked by alternating periods of peaceful development and bitter persecution. Tunisian Jews knew their darkest days under Spanish domination from 1535 to 1575, but they also felt the lash under Moslem leaders. Despite their hardships, Tunisian Jewry maintained the Jewish tradition intact. During the 18th century, Tunisia became an important seat of Talmudic learning. A bright era began in 1881, when France assumed the protectorate over the country. Jews received equal citizenship rights along with Muslims and, for the first time, were permitted to enter the fields of commerce and industry. The Alliance Isra

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